The active ingredient in COMMON SENSE Antimicrobial forms a colorless, odorless, positively charged monomer which molecularly bonds to the treated surface. You could think of it as a layer of electrically charged swords. When a microorganism comes in contact with the treated surface, the quaternary amine “sword” punctures the cell membrane and the electrical charge “shocks” the cell. Since nothing is transferred to the now dead cell, the antimicrobial doesn’t lose strength and the “sword” is ready for the next cell to contact it. In order for COMMON SENSE Antimicrobial to continue its effectiveness, normal cleaning of treated surfaces is necessary. Dirt buildup, paint, dead microbes, etc. will cover the treatment prohibiting it from killing microorganisms.